History[ edit ] Mangosteen is a native plant to Southeast Asia. Highly valued for its juicy, delicate texture and slightly sweet and sour flavour, the mangosteen has been cultivated in MalaysiaBorneoSumatraMainland Southeast Asiaand the Philippines since ancient times. The 15th-century Chinese record Yingya Shenglan described mangosteen as mang-chi-shih derived from Malay Language manggisa native plant of Southeast Asia of white flesh with delectable sweet and sour taste.
Optimization of Cytochrome C Production of Pseudomonas spp. Canistel fruit locally known as chesa and sugarcane were used as carbohydrate sources in the fermentation medium at different pHs and their effectiveness was compared to that of molasses, the one being used by laboratories for fermentation.
After 72 hours of fermentation, the cytochrome C yield ofPseudomonas spp. Cytochrome C production of Pseudomonas spp. Molasses still proved to be the best carbohydrate source at pH 6.
However, it was found out that canistel fruit and sugarcane juice are as effective as molasses in promoting cytochrome C of Pseudomonas spp.
Lactic acid bacteria are used in the produttion of acidophilus milk,yogurt, pickle, olives, sanserkurt; several other bacteria types are used to produce cheese. Bacteria are also involved in making fermented meats like salami and in the production of vinegar, soy sauce, chocolate, essential amino acids, and vitamins.
Some produce biocides and antibiotics that are used to control pests and fight infections. Because of their prolific reproduction rates, bacteria are also ideal "factories" for the production of biomolecules.
Bacteria have been genetically engineered to produce certain vaccines, human growth hormones, insulin, and many other clinically important compounds like cytochrome C. Cytochrome C is a class of protein containing a heme metal-containing cofactor as the central structure.
It is being used as electron acceptor in aerobic respiration and is thus present in all cells. It is extensively studied on their possible role in cancer-cell death, anti-sensitivity response, and many other roles.
The most important source of cytochrome C is the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates, which is attained either in surface or submerged broth process. There are many microorganisms, including fungi, yeasts, and bacteria that can produce the protein by fermentation. Among them, Pseudomonas spp.
Many researches were conducted on the fermentation kinetics of the bioprocess involved in the production of cytochrome C. These resulted in larger variations in the condition recommended for a successful fermentation, such as the type of microorganisms used, incubation temperature, agitation rate, pH, and medium composition.
This study was conducted to optimize the cytochrome C production of Pseudomonas spp. When the mitochondria is damaged, cytochrome C is released into the main body of the cell, and if the cell is damaged, into the surrounding tissue. The release of cytochrome C is part of a cascade of cellular events that lead to apoptosis, or programmed cell death.
Measurement of this protein can lead to greater understanding of certain diseases on a cellular level. These cells do not undergo the programmed cell death that chemotherapeutic drugs should induce.
Another article in the same issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry written by researches at Case Eastern Reserve University noted that measuring cytochrome C can be used as evidence that apoptosis is occurring.
Mitochondrial cytochrome C is one of the most extensively studied electron-transfer proteins. The cytochrome C amino acid sequences have been determined in organisms including humans, chimps, rhesus monkeys, cows, pigs, sheep, camels, great whales, dogs, bats, rabbits, bull frogs, starfish, and fruit flies.
The said protein is easily separated from its mitochondrial environment because of its solubility in water. Furthermore, cytochrome C is readily available in pure and native form, although it is expensive. The protein is also being synthesized by several microorganisms ranging from bacteria, to protists, and fungi.
With this, bacterial fermentation via aerobic processes is commercially employed. It can be produced by E. It was maintained at refrigeration temperature until use to support its cellular maintenance while at dormant stage.
Microbial Activation To ensure the viability and full potential of the microorganism, the culture was transferred aseptically to three test tubes containing nutrient agar medium. A loopful of the mother culture was transferred aseptically to the working culture. Preparation of Carbohydrate Source Fresh canistel fruits were obtained from the locality.
The fruits were washed, peeled, mashed, then added to an emulsion mixture of water at 1: Sugarcane stems obtained from a local farm were washed, cut into chips, and homogenized using a blender. The juice was extracted through mechanical means using cheesecloth.
For the control group, molasses 25 degrees, Brix was purchased from a sugar company. Fermentation To promote cytochrome C production of Pseudomonas spp.DYE 1 – A rich charcoal black colour. The Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) originates in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas.
Tie-die detail: Talok tree-Muntingia calabura. The Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas of Indonesia.
The tree grows from 7 . excellent range of natural colours. Silk fabric treated simultaneously with mordanting and dyeing with extract dye Index Colour 5 Keywords—Natural dye, Freeze-drying, Garcinia mangostana Linn, Mordanting.
I. INTRODUCTION S people become more conscious of the environmental. Volume 6, Issue 1, Spring 1 Volume 6, Issue 1, Spring Keywords: Garcinia Mangostana, natural dye, cotton, wool, silk, commercial dyeing tinctorial value of this natural dye for cotton fabric is not high for these mordants despite the tannic acid pretreatment to cotton.
Garcinia Mangostana as Natural Fabric Dye. Pages: 11 ( (Garcinia mangostana), a rare fruit known to be the "queen of tropical fruits," contains bitter yellow latex and purple juice. The mangosteen husks, which are put to waste, produce stain. This led to the idea of producing a household product without using harmful chemicals.
tinctorial value of this natural dye for cotton fabric is not high for these mordants despite the tannic acid pretreatment to cotton fabrics. Silk and Wool yarn with extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp.
Skip carousel. carousel previous carousel next. Pretreatment of Wool - Part uploaded by. Mohammed Atiqul Hoque Chowdhury. Canc. PULVERISED NATURAL DYES FOR TEXTILE DYEING Feroza Ahmad Faiz lightfastness of the dyed and aftertreated fabric samples was observed after 40 hours exposure to direct sunlight.
Subsequently, advanced experiments were conducted using (Garcinia mangostana), mangrove / “Tengar” (Ceriops tagal).